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Ground water quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural purpose in the Tonk of   Niwai province, RAJASTHAN

         Dr.  Priya Mishra

 Banasthali Vidyapith, Jaipur

Abstract

The Tonk in Rajasthan region is an essential irrigation region with a low population density.  Hydro-chemical observed were carry-out in the Tonk of   Niwai province, RAJASTHAN, to estimate the chemical composition of groundwater. In this study 70 water samples were collected from different area (hand pump and well) to observe the water chemistry of different ions. The results of the chemical measured show that the groundwater in the region

is normally acidic to slightly alkaline and predominantly Na++ and Ca++ cations in addition to calcium bicarbonate and sulphate anions. The ions were showed that highly positive correlation like  that HCO3, SO42-,   Ca2+, Cl, Mg2+ and Na+, K+, Fand NO3 .  The total dissolved solids (TDS) mostly based on the concentration of main ions for example HCO3, SO42-,   Ca2+, Cl, Mg2+ and Na+, K+ F-. The main hydro-chemical Facies for groundwater are Ca2+Mg2+-HCO3 Mg2+–Ca2+-SO42-Cl, Na+-K+–Cl-SO42−, and Na+-K+-Mg2+-Cl-HCO3 types. The hydro‒chemical procedures are the main parameters that decide the water quality of the water system. These methods contain silicate minerals climate, dissolution, ion exchange, and to a lesser area, evaporation, which appear to be more well-defined down gradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is analysed according to the ionic ratio plot, specifies that the gypsum–halite dissolution responses arise during a certain degree of rock climate. SI as well shows that evaporation is the main parameter the most important ionic composition in the study area. The evaluation results of the water samples using different methods show that the water in the study area is usually hard, fresh, high to very high saline, and low alkaline in nature. The high total hardness and TDS, chloride and, F   NO3 of the water sample in various areas point out the unsuitable of the water sample for drinking and agricultural.   The calculated WQI revealed that water of groundwater was poor which may be attributed due to the presence of high concentration of total dissolved solids, chloride and total hardness and Fluoride. On comparison to WHO and BIS, value the water was found unsuitable for agriculture and drinking.

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